Rhino 3D Basic Modeling Tutorial #1 (Making an Axe)

In this video, i want to show you how easy we can make 3d models with rhino especially for making industrial object. An Axe maybe looks an easy object but modeling it will give an insight for using various tools in Rhino like curve, surface and solid command. Finally, i hope this tutorial will help anyone who have an interest in developing rhino 3d skills.

Before we begin making our object, when you first open Rhinoceros make sure you choose CM template, or open “Rhino Options” on your top bar. Under “Document Properties” Choose Units, and change Model Units with “Centimeters” and Click OK.

In this modeling tutorial you need to remember some basic action down below :

  1. With your mouse, at your working screen – clicking means select, hold right click = rotate, Hold shift key + right click = pan, right click = enter.
  2. This is your home screen area that will be using in this tutorial Home Screen Area
  3. You can move to each views (Perspective, Top, Front or Right) Just by clicking the text on View Tab.
  4. To select different style of preview you can open drop down menu on the very left top of your working screen and select wireframe to Pen.

Download an Image that i have made before at the bottom of this article.

  1. Place Bitmap with opening drop down menu on the Top Left of your inner screen. Background Bitmap>Place and select the image that you’ve downloaded from this article and click Open.Open Bitmap
  2. Place your image with placing your first point on the middle of the axis and drag it to the right top until the high dimension of your image touching 20 grid and click.Placing image
  3. Click again to let the image becoming our background.
  4. Select Curve : Interpolate Points from Rhino Left Bar  Interpolated Pointsand start making curve from the tip of your axe bitmap and follow the line to the back of axe head.Tracing Image 1
  5. Do the same thing to make second line and finish it at the back of our axe image.Tracing Image 2
  6. Make the 3rd line with pressing thumbnail of polyline at Rhino Left Bar. Start the line at the end of first line to our end of the second line.Tracing Image 3
  7. Right click the Arc Thumbnail Arc 1 at Rhino Left Side Bar and select “Arcs through points”.
  8. Make and arc start from first point of our curve then click second point at beginning of our second line and then adjust the last point until it follows our axes sharp edge in the image.Tracing Image 4
  9. Joint our curves together with clicking Join Thumbnails Joinat Rhino Left Side Bar
  10. For making our Axes Handle we’re gonna make another interpolated Point Curve Interpolated PointsFollowing our handle lines at our background image.Tracing Image 5Tracing Image 6use Shift Key to make your last line and make it pass the first curveTracing Image 7
  11. Zoom in to last line that you’ve made so you can see that those line not touching each other, with this condition we can’t join them. Adjust them by turning on Edit PointEdit Point.Adjusting Line
  12. Before join Jointhem together don’t forget to make the Arc Arc 1for the bottom of our handle.Tracing Image 8
  13. Make sure you not making too many point because it’s gonna make your surface edge having too much segment, in the future you gonna realize that it maybe gonna bring you difficulties.
  14. After we done with tracing the image with lines and curves, now we can hide our background Bitmap with once again opening drop down menu from the top left of our working screen, Select Background Bitmap>Hide.Hide Bitmap Image
  15. Next step is making our 2D Curves into 3D Solid object. Select our axes head curves and then Click Main Menu > Solid >Extrude Planar Curve>Straight.Extrude Curve Solid
  16. Set the dimension of our object to 2.8cm high and enter (or right click).Extrude 1.jpg
  17. Move our handle to the top with writing command : Move 0.2cm from right view.Move Curves 1.jpg
  18. Mirror it so we having two curves of our axes handle. This second curve will be our guide so later on our extrusion precisely 0.2cm from the axes head edges.Mirror Curve 1.jpg
  19. Extrude our head Axes curves with click Main Menu > Solid >Extrude Planar Curve>Straight until it touch our handle second curve.Extrude Curve Solid 2.jpg
  20. Now we have a 3D draft of our Axes. Notes : I usally keep my lines and curves just in case i need it later. But to avoid distractions from those lines and curve i store it to another layer. In this video i move them to Layer 01 by simply selecting all the curve with right clicking Selection Thumbnails at the Top Bar Select Curves.jpg and choosing “Select Curves”.
  21. Right Click Layer 01 so it will pop up a drop down menu Change Object Layer.jpgand select Change Object Layer. Click the bulb beside that menu to turn off that Layer.Turn Off Layer
  22. At the working screen select our 3d Axes Head and hide it by clicking the light bulb at Top Bar so we can focus on modifying our handle.Hide.jpg
  23.  We gonna make our handle more realistic so we start it with making the top of our handle elliptical by placing ellipse curve Ellipseon itEllipse from 2 points.jpg. Right click ellipse thumbnail at Left Bar and Choose Ellipse : Diameter.Ellipse.jpg
  24. From the top view we gonna make several boxes by making lines that cross our 3D model.Lines.jpg
  25. For our last line that attach to the tips of the bottom handle we’re gonna extend it with selecting extend curve from Main Menu>Curve>Extend Curve>By Line.Extend Curve line.jpgExtend Curve apply.jpg
  26. Select those lines except the ellipse and project it by selecting our solid handle and then write the command : project. Select our lines and click enter (or right click)Projecting.jpg
  27. Now we have projected polylines at surfaces of our 3d handle (even thought we can see it now). To focus making our stylish handle invert selection by right clicking selection tools thumbnail at Top Bar and click Invert SelectionSelect inverse.jpg, and store it at our Layer 02 on Layer 2.jpg the Right Bar, turn off that layer and now we left with our projected lines and ellipse.Curve and Lines.jpg
  28. I want the bottom of our handle will be elliptical too so i use last two boxes as guide to make same ellipse like step 21.2 Ellipse.jpg
  29. We need to use network curve command to make our beauty handle so we need to cut all of our curves in a half so i make a single line by clicking polyline thumbnail at the Left Bar and start it from the middle of our first ellipse to last ellipse.
  30. From front view select the last line that we’ve made and use it as a cutter to trim the bottom of another polylines that started by using Ctrl + T and drag your cursor from bottom right to left top of the first ellipse and click enter.Trim Curves.jpg
  31. After we having half of our curves we need to make sure our handle having no sharpe edges so we using FilletCorners Command and select our U shape curve between half ellipse in the middle and type 0.5 that will remove sharp corners of our U Shape curves.Fillet Curves.jpg
  32. To make network curve surface we need last curves that crossing our last curves, so we making it with Interpolated Curves like step 4. Make 3 Curves at 2 sides and middle of those curves.Network Curves 1.jpg
  33. Select all of our curves and right click “Surface from 3 or 4 Corner points”at the Left Bar and choose “Surface from Network Curves” Surface from network curves.jpgand click OK.Surface from network curves 1.jpg
  34. Before we make the other side of our surface handle don’t forget that at the bottom of our handle should be rounded too, so i bring out our lines from Layer 01 with click bulb that been turn off before to use curve that we’ve been using for tracing our image lately.Bring up lines.jpg
  35. To apply our rounded bottom edge of our handle, first we need to make our late surface to become longer than before. To do that i open Main Menu>Surface>Extend Surface and click the edge that we want to extend.Extend Surface.jpg
  36. After we extend our surface we duplicated for the other side of it with command : Mirror. Use right or front view to ensure our surface being mirror nicely.Mirror 2.jpg
  37. Join those top surface and bottom surface together.Join 2 surface.jpg
  38. Close the open surface that appear on top of our handle by Right ClickSurface from planar curves.jpg “Surface from 3 or 4 corner points” and click Surface from Planar Curves.
  39. Explode the curve that being shown at Layer 01 by clicking Explode Thumbnail at Left Side Bar and copy it by writing command : Copy while move it to the middle of our handle in front view. Select that curve and arrange it with dragging it while we Hold Shift Key on our keyboard so it will stay on that axis.Explode Curve.jpgCopy Curve.jpgAdjusting Curve.jpgDrag curve down.jpg
  40. Explode our second handle curves like in the step 35 and select those 3 Arc curves and loft it by writing command : Loft.Explode Curve 2.jpgLoft 1.jpg
  41. As we can see at all the Edges of our last surface not crossing our 3D handle, make it larger by extend all the Edges like on the step 33.Extend Surface 2.jpg
  42. Now we can trim all the excess surface that we don’t need any longer by using command : Trim and click those excess surfaces. last don’t forget to join them together.Trim Excess Surface 1.jpgJoin all surface 1.jpg
  43. Now we have better shape for our handle model, to make it even more nice apply FilletEdge command to them, and now we complete making our Axes HandleFillet Edges 1.jpg
  44. Unhide our Axes Head by Right Click bulb at Top Bar. Now we going to focus on our second part which is Axes Head.Unhide Axe Head.jpg
  45. It’s even more faster if we just duplicate our edge and placing it in the middle of the model by writing command : DupEdge and move it by writing command : Move.Duplicate Edge 1.jpgMove Arc to the Middle.jpg
  46. Now we have our sharp edge guides right in the middle of Axes Head draft as it should be.
  47. To make a precise hole that intersect our Axes Handle and Head we need to make intersectin curve between them by pulling down Main Menu>Curve>Curve from objects>Intersection.Intersection.jpgIntersection Curve Result.jpg
  48. Hide those 3D drafts and make single line from the top point of our Axes Arc Sharp Edge to thru top ellipse curve.Hide Handle.jpgHide Axes Head.jpgMaking single line.jpg
  49. Extrude it through Main Menu>Surface>Extrude Curve>Straight – BothSides=Yes until it passing the height of our front ellipse.Extrude Singel Line Bothsides.jpg
  50. Pull the front ellipse to surface that we barely make with writing command : PullPull.jpg
  51. Offset both ellipses from front view to make an outer skin of our Axes Head.Offset.jpgDelete Curves.jpg
  52. Connect our vertical ellipse with horizontal Arc using Tangen from curve Tangen Line from curves.jpg at Left Side Bar Click Down Arrow to pick Line : Tangen From Curve. Mirror it so we have it at bottom and top.Tangen form curve apply.jpg
  53. Mirror that line for the bottom side.Mirror Curve 2.jpg
  54. Trim our inside ellipse part with our both lines, and Join our top lines with ellipse that has been trimmed.Trim Curve 1.jpg
  55. Use middle line to trim the bottom of the rest of ellipse.Trim Curve 2.jpg
  56. Make line that connect the bottom tips of our Polycurve with the middle bottom ellipse curve.Makin Middle line.jpg
  57. Use that new single straight curve and Arc curve to make a surface trough Main Menu>Surface>Sweep 2 Rails and select our curves that been join from part of top ellipse and tangen line.Sweep 2 Rails 2.jpgSweep 2 Rails 1.jpg
  58. Mirror it to bottom.
  59. Unhide our 3D Draft Axes Head and Duplicate the bottom and the top from one side of it.
  60. Use those curves to trim our late surface that been made with sweep rails from the top view.Trim solid 1.jpg
  61. Make a single line in the middle of back 3D draft object and move it to the top 0.7cm. Don’t forget to use Hold Shift Key.Move Line.jpgMirror Curve 3.jpg
  62. Make 2 lines that connect upper lines to the polysurface.Polyline 1.jpg
  63. Create projected line from top view crossing the middle of our polysurface.Project crossing line.jpg
  64. Make 3 new Interpolated Curves trough lines and Polysurface at the Top, Middle and the Bottom of those lines and Polysurface. Then delete the PolysurfaceCreate interpolated curve 1Create interpolated curve 3Create interpolated curve 2
  65. Make several Interpolated Curve cross those 3 curves that we’ve made recently and remove other lines that connected directly to our new curves.Interpolated curve crossng.jpg
  66. Makes surface from network curves from those curves and line.Make Network curve surface.jpg
  67. Mirror and join all togetherJoin surface.jpgMirror Surface.jpg
  68. Use Surface from 2, 3 or 4 Edge Curves that you can find at Left Tool Bar inside Thumbnail Surface from 3 or 4 corner points.Edge surface.jpgEdge Surface Apply.jpg
  69. Now we have a solid Axes Head that we need to make hole at it. Use Boolean DifferenceBoolean Difference.jpg to make a hole with the handle.Boolean Difference applied.jpgBD Result.jpg
  70. Last thing we wanna do is make fillet edge in several edge like shown in the picture.Fillet those edges.jpg
  71. And this is the final result gonna look like.Final Result.jpg
  72. If you want to render it, we could use various render plug-in. Iam using keyshot to make render this model and you can see the result in feature image of this article.

That’s all. if you found any missing image that you think you need to guide you, you can peek it my video above and if you have question, i’ll be glad to help.

Success!!

Download this image for Background Bitmap for following the tutorial :

Axe Bitmap

Asyraaf

Industrial designer

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